Theoretical and practical innovations in regard to party diplomacy of the Communist Party of China

We are very pleased to be able to make available this important paper by Pan Jin’e, Director and Professor of the International Communist Movement Research Department of the Academy of Marxism, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS). It was delivered at the Cloud International Workshop on “New Forms of Human Civilization from a World Perspective,” held by the School of Marxism, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), 29-31 October 2021. In his paper, Professor Pan outlines the development of the CPC’s international relations through different historical periods, relating it both to the situation in China and the world as well as to Marxist-Leninist theory. We are grateful to the DUT Translation Team for their work as well as to Professor Roland Boer for his meticulous sub-editing.

Party Diplomacy’s Significant Contributions to the Creation of A New Form of Human Civilisation: Theoretical and Practical Innovations in Regard to Party Diplomacy of the Communist Party of China

Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC), commented in his speech at the ceremony marking the CPC’s 100th anniversary that socialism with Chinese characteristics has created a new form of human civilisation: “We adhere to and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, promoting the coordinated development of material, political, spiritual, social and ecological civilisations, and thereby creating a new path of Chinese-style modernisation and a new form of human civilisation.”[1] These “five civilisations” are not only a profound summary of the development of socialist civilisation with Chinese characteristics, but also an important connotation of the “new form of human civilisation.”

As the leading force of socialism with Chinese characteristics, the CPC’s diplomacy with political parties around the world comprises both the significant content of foreign relations, and is an important part of the political civilisation of Chinese socialism. The party diplomacy of the CPC has made an indispensable and important contribution to the creation of a new form of human civilisation. Therefore, a comprehensive explanation of the theory and practice of the CPC’s diplomacy in relation to political parties and governments will, on the one hand, help to enrich the connotations of the theory of a new form of human civilisation in light of Chinese socialism, and, on the other hand, help countries around the world to come to know and understand the CPC, enhance the cohesive strength of the building of a new type of party diplomacy, and help in creating a new form of party exchanges around the world and so a new form of political civilisation.

To begin with, this paper will trace the theoretical source of the CPC’s approach to engagements with political parties, that is, Marxist theoretical views on international political relations and relations with international parties. On this basis, the paper combs through the understanding of the Marxist theory (of international relations) by several generations of CPC leaders, that is, the new developments of a Sinicised Marxist theory of party diplomacy, and especially Xi Jinping’s thought on global structures, party diplomacy, and its application in China’s new socialist era. Finally, it calls on political parties all over the world, especially Marxist political parties, to unite and cooperate, and jointly make new contributions to the construction of a new form of political party exchanges, and so to the creation of a new form of human political civilisation.

1. The basic theoretical viewpoint of Marxism on international politics and relations between political parties

Communist parties throughout the world take Marxism-Leninism as their guiding theory. Historical materialism is the theoretical core of Marxism-Leninism and the most basic starting point and foothold for worldwide communist parties to understand and transform the world. The Marxist-Leninist approach to international political theory is an important part of the scientific system of Marxism, and its foundation and core is historical materialism. Marxist historical materialism holds that the material realities of life and economic production have determined the evolution of human history. Taking this as the starting point, Marxism examines the development of social forms from the perspective of production relations, and proposes that the development of human society needs to go through five major social forms, namely the “primitive commune, slave-owning, feudalism, capitalism and socialism (and communism).”[2]

Lenin developed Marxist historical materialism and proposed that the transition of human society from a capitalist system to a socialist system requires a long period of time. In this transitional period, the socialist system and the capitalist system would long coexist. Therefore, in order to survive and develop in a powerful capitalist world, the new and relatively weak proletarian government must carry out international cooperation with capitalism in order to make full use of the wealth and technology created by capitalism so as to develop the material foundation of socialism. At the same time, this approach would help prevent war by strengthening economic ties with capitalist countries, and at the same time consolidate the strength of socialist countries through cooperation.

At the same time, Marxism is still a theory concerning human liberation, which holds that “history is nothing but the activity of humanity pursuing its aims.”[3] Marx held that human nature is the sum of all practical social relations. Therefore, human survival must depend on a certain form of community. In different historical stages, with the changes of social reality and human needs, the form of community also changes accordingly. In his Economic Manuscripts 1857-1858, Marx proposed that the development of human society goes through three communal stages: first, the pre-capitalist era was based on “relations of human dependence,” that is, the “naturally evolved community”; the second is capitalist society based on “dependence mediated by things,” that is, a false or “illusory community”; the third is communist society based on “individual all-round development,” that is, the true or “real community” in which “individuals attain their freedom in and through their association.”[4] In his works, Marx often used the “real community” and the “free development of each is the condition for the free development of all” to refer to the future communist society.[5]

In short, according to the Marxist theory of the development of forms of human society, there is a long period of transition from capitalist society to communist society, that is, there is a long process between the “illusory community” and the “real community” (the association of free people).[6] It is necessary to establish a cooperative relationship in line with the transition period, so as to gradually expand the material basis of socialist relations of production, and help all peoples and countries to coordinate and solve global problems while taking into account their own practical interests.

In terms of the relations between proletarian political parties in various countries, Marxism emphasises the unity of the proletariat. Marx and Engels attached great importance to the international unity and joint action of workers of various countries and stressed that “proletarian liberation can only be an international undertaking.”[7] At the same time, a working-class political party should respect the right of choice of each party and avoid imposing its own views on others: any “choice … is the affair of the working classes of that country”[8] and “every section is to have its own theoretical views of the real movement.”[9] All parties should establish a relationship of equal cooperation, since “any international action must have as a necessary premise a previous agreement both as to the substance and the form,”[10] and “international cooperation is possible only among equals.”[11] Lenin inherited Marx and Engels’s views on Communist Party relations. He stressed that all parties in various countries should choose their own strategies of struggle according to the actual situation and characteristics, and learn well from the experience of other countries in taking their own development path. Lenin pointed out: “it is not enough … simply to copy out the latest resolutions” from other countries; instead, “what is required is the ability to treat these experiences critically and to test them independently.”[12]

At present, human society is in a long period of transition from capitalism to socialism. Marxism’s views on the transition period, the human community, the proletariat’s standing, unity and cooperation have become the theoretical source of interactions between the CPC and political parties all over the world.

2. The CPC’s theoretical innovation and development of Marxist international cooperation and inter-party relations

Under the leadership of each generation of CPC leaders – from Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao to Xi Jinping – the CPC has always adhered to Marxism as its guiding theory, persisted in understanding the world from the perspective of Marxist historical materialism and the standpoint of the proletariat, and formed its own theoretical viewpoints that have been used to guide China’s diplomatic practice.

In Mao Zedong’s era, from the founding of the CPC to the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, the CPC made contact only with the communist parties and workers’ parties in various countries. It adopted the “one-sided” policy of completely leaning towards the socialist camp headed by the Soviet Union, while  rejecting and not contacting socialist parties and conservative parties with ideological differences.

However, in the 1960s, ideological differences among the communist parties of various countries broke out. The CPC criticised the Great Power and Big Party behaviour of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In the context of the international communist movement, the CPC stressed that communist parties of various countries should have fraternal relations, not parent-child relations, and that all parties regardless of their history and strength are equal to one another.[13] In order to oppose the hegemonism of great powers, Mao Zedong put forward the theory of “Three Worlds.” On the one hand, China should steadfastly safeguard its national sovereignty and interests, on the other hand, it should carry forward the spirit of internationalism and provide generous assistance to the peoples of the third world. A country’s diplomacy should adhere to the five principles of “mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence.”[14] When dealing with the relationship with the communist parties of non-socialist countries, Mao Zedong advocated the two principles of “the state is concerned with inter-state relations, and the party is concerned with inter-party relations.” These principles aimed to maintain relations with these countries and safeguard national interests, while also paying attention to those who share the same ideology and carry forward the international communist spirit of helping other communist parties. Mao Zedong advocated the dialectical unity of national interests and ideology. However, in practice, the CPC’s foreign policy in this period not only had successful experiences, but also accumulated some lessons.

In the 1970s, Deng Xiaoping reflected on the problems of the times and put forward the theme of peace and development. With this background, China implemented the policy of the reform and opening-up, taking advantage of the strategic opportunity of a period of overall world peace. China focused on economic construction and, by integrating more openly with the world, enabled the socialist modernisation drive. The guiding thought and objectives of the CPC’s international relations began to be adjusted, from supporting world revolution in the past to serving domestic economic construction. In diplomacy, the CPC advocates “avoiding alliances and confrontation, and not targeting any third country,”[15] and carried out diversified and all-round diplomacy.

In terms of inter-party relations, on the basis of drawing from experiences and lessons of the international communist movement, Deng Xiaoping set forth the principle of interaction with communist parties, ruling parties, and non-ruling parties all over the world. In regard to relations with communist parties of all countries, Deng Xiaoping proposed that historical issues should be treated with the attitude of seeking truth from facts, and not denying disputes and contradictions. And regarding the grievances, between the CPC and the communist parties of other countries, in the great debates of the international communist movement in the 1960s, Deng held a forward-looking attitude, proposing to establish a “new type of inter-party relationship” between the parties.

On the basis of Deng Xiaoping’s thinking, the CPC’s 12th National Congress of 1982 formally put forward the “four principles of inter-party interaction” in terms of “independence, complete equality, mutual respect, and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs,”[16] as the CPC’s core guiding principle of inter-party interaction in the new period. At the CPC’s 14th National Congress in 1992 it was also proposed to “develop our party’s relations with communist parties and other political parties of various countries.”[17] And at the CPC’s 15th National Congress in 1997 it was proposed, on the basis of the Four Principles, “to develop new types of inter-party exchanges and cooperation with the political parties of all countries that desire contact with our Party.”[18] Here, the CPC’s foreign relations were extended to include “political parties of all countries that desire contact with the CPC,” in order to serve the development of the state-to-state foreign relations. These major adjustments have injected new elements into China’s development of interaction and cooperation with political parties of other countries.

Under the guidance of this principle, the CPC successively restored its ties with the communist parties of most countries and eased its relations with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (and later the Communist Party of the Russian Federation). At the same time, it began extensive interactions with socialist parties in Western European countries, the ruling nationalist parties in Asian, African and Latin American countries and other major political parties. Party diplomacy had begun a new chapter.[19]

In the early 1990s, with the drastic changes in Eastern Europe and the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the international communist movement suffered serious setbacks, and socialism with Chinese characteristics was facing a very difficult international environment. The CPC continued to adhere to the four principles of inter-party relations to deal with the relations between various parties. General Secretary Jiang Zemin provided a new theoretical summary of the changes in world patterns and the prospects for the development of human society. He believed that the diversity of world civilisations is a historical necessity and an objective reality: “The diversity of different nationalities, religions and civilisations should be fully respected.”[20] In order to establish extensive relations and maintain independence, China has put forward the view of “partnership-but-not-alliance,” which dominated the direction of inter-party interaction of the CPC in this period.

At the beginning of the new century and in light of China’s rapid rise that led some to speak in terms of a “China threat” hypothesis, General Secretary Hu Jintao put forward the political concept of a “harmonious world,” thereby announcing to the world that China will always follow the path of peaceful development. In order to establish a positive international image of the CPC as the largest ruling party and to demonstrate to the world the party’s ruling concepts and achievements, the CPC constantly expanded inter-party relations, deepened the exchange of ideas, and consolidated the foundation for interaction with political parties all over the world.

At present, the world is experiencing great changes unseen for a century. The COVID-19 pandemic, natural disasters, terrorism, and extremism bring all manner of challenges to the world. In order to counter these challenges, the CPC with Xi Jinping at the core has continued to understand the world and analyse problems by means of Marxist historical materialism. The CPC has grasped the characteristics and key issues of the current era and put forward the proposal of building a community with a shared future for humankind, thus offering the CPC’s solution to the difficult problems of our times. The core connotation of the initiative to build a community with a shared future for humankind is to “build an open, inclusive, clean, and beautiful world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security, and common prosperity” under the principles of “consultation, co-construction and shared benefits.”[21] Building a community with a shared future for humankind is the requirement of the era when human society has developed to the stage of the coexistence of capitalism and socialism, and it will create the material basis and objective conditions for the “real community” described by Marx (see above). It is not only the requirement of the development of human history, but also in line with the values of proletarian political parties all over the world.

In terms of exchanges with the world’s political parties, Xi Jinping proposed further establishing the new type of relations between political parties based on the four principles of independence, complete equality, mutual respect and non-interference in internal affairs, to which the CPC adheres in its external contacts and in accordance with the requirements of the new era. In December of 2017, the CPC held a high-level dialogue with the world’s political parties. At the meeting, Xi Jinping delivered an important speech and stressed: “Political parties of different countries should enhance mutual trust, communication and coordination; explore ways to build a new type of relations among political parties, featuring the seeking of common ground while reserving differences; mutual respect and mutual learning on the basis of a new type of international relations; and build an international network of exchanges and cooperation between political parties in various forms and at various levels so as to pool powerful forces for building a community with a shared future for humankind.”[22] Xi Jinping’s thought indicates the direction for the new situation of party relations and promotes the theory of China’s inter-party relations to a new height.

3. Conclusion

Reviewing the development of the CPC in the past century since its founding, the leaders of the CPC have always guided their relations with communist parties, ruling parties and other political parties around the world with Marxist positions and viewpoints. It has formed the principles and guiding theory of the CPC’s foreign relations with political parties in different periods, guided the CPC and its diplomatic practice, made important contributions to the success of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and provided experiences upon which to draw for exchanges between political parties in other countries.

At the 2017 first high-level dialogue between the CPC and world political parties held in Beijing (mentioned above), Xi Jinping pointed out: “Moving forward, the CPC will enhance exchanges with political parties of other countries to share ideas on enhancing party competence and state governance and conduct further exchanges and dialogue among civilisations so as to improve our strategic mutual trust. Let all of us, people of all countries, join hands to build a global community of shared future for humankind and jointly build a better world!”[23] This is the embodiment of Xi Jinping’s diplomatic thinking in the relations between political parties. It clearly defines the direction of the CPC’s contacts with political parties in the world in the new era.

At present, the world is in a period of great change unseen for a century, posing severe challenges to world peace and people’s happiness. There is an urgent need for new ideas and new solutions to help solve global problems. The report of the CPC’s 19th National Congress in 2017 proposed that the “Communist Party of China strives for both the wellbeing of the Chinese people and human progress. To make new and greater contributions for humankind is our Party’s abiding mission.”[24] Therefore, “China is willing to expand converging interests with other countries, accelerating the construction of new international relations centring on win-win cooperation and forming a community of shared future for humankind and the common interests of humankind.”[25] Building this community is the solution proposed by the CPC in the face of the problems of our times. The CPC takes as its vision and mission the guiding of inter-party exchanges with political parties in various countries, promoting mutual trust by advocating better communication and close cooperation, and advancing the construction of a new type of political party relations on the basis of seeking common ground while reserving differences, mutual respect through mutual learning, so as to realise the ultimate goal of building a community with a shared future for humankind and a better world.

It is the purpose and mission of political parties all over the world to solve various problems and challenges faced by their own countries and all humankind. Therefore, we call on the world’s political parties, especially ruling parties and Marxist political parties, to take promoting the construction of a community with a shared future for all humankind as the new content and goal of political party exchanges, and jointly make new contributions to the creation of a new form of human political civilisation.

References

Chai Shangjin. 2021. “The Innovative Contribution of the CPC’s One Hundred Years of International Engagement to the Marxist Theory of Inter-Party Relations.” Studies on the Theories of Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping, no. 4, 42-50+108. In Chinese.

Engels, Friedrich. 1882. “Engels to Karl Kautsky, 7 February 1882.”  In Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol. 46, 191-95. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1992.

Engels, Friedrich. 1883. “Preface to the 1883 German Edition of the Manifesto of the Communist Party.” In Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol. 26, 118-19. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1990.

Engels, Friedrich. 1888. “Preface to the 1888 English Edition of the ‘Manifesto of the Communist Party’.” In Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol, 512-18. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1990.

Engels, Friedrich. 1892. “The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State.” In Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol. 26, 129-276. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1990.

Engels, Friedrich. 1894. “Engels to Paul Lafargue, 3 January 1894.” In Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol. 50, 252-54. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1976.

Jiang Zemin. 1998. “Speech at the Science City of Novosibirsk (24 November 1998).” In Selected Works of Jiang Zemin, vol. 2, 231-35. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 2012.

Jiang Zemin, 2000. “Speech at the United Nations Millennium Summit (7 September 2000).” In Selected Works of Jiang Zemin, vol. 3, 1-7-12. Beijing Foreign Languages Press, 2012.

Lenin, V. I. 1902. “What Is to Be Done? Burning Questions of Our Movement.” In Lenin Collected Works, Vol. 5, 347-529. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1961.

Mao Zedong. 1954. “The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence are a Long-term Goal (December 1954). In On Diplomacy, 136-50. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1998.

Marx, Karl. 1858. Economic Manuscripts of 1857-58 (First Version of Capital, also known Grundrisse). In Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol. 28. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1986.

Marx, Karl. 1859. “A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy.” In Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol. 26, 257-417. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1987.

Marx, Karl. 1870. “Marx to Paul Lafargue, 19 April 1870.”  In Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol. 43, 489-93. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1988.

Marx, Karl. 1871. “Record of Marx’s Interview with ‘The World’ Correspondent.” In Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol. 22, 600-6. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1986.

Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels, 1845. The Holy Family. In Marx Engels Collected Works, vol. 4, 5-211. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1975.

Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. 1846. The German Ideology. In Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol. 5, 19-539 Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1976

Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. 1848. “The Manifesto of the Communist Party.” In Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol. 6, 477-519. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1976.

Zhou Enlai. 1953. “Five Principles for Peaceful Coexistence (31 December, 1953).” In Selected Works of Zhou Enlai, Vol. 2, 128. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1989.

Xi Jinping. 2016. “Stay True to Our Original Aspiration and Continue Marching Forward (1 July 2016).” In The Governance of China, vol. 2, 32-48. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 2017.

Xi Jinping. 2017. “Secure a Decisive Victory in Building a Moderately Prosperous Society in All Respects and Strive for the Great Success of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era: Report to the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, October 18, 2017.” In The Governance of China, vol. 3, 1-82. China: Foreign Languages Press.

Xi Jinping. 2017. “Turn People’s Aspirations for a Better Life into Reality: Keynote Speech at the High-level Dialogue of the CPC and World Political Parties held on 1 December 2017.” In The Governance of China, vol. 3, 354-57. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.

Xi Jinping. 2021. “Speech at a Ceremony Marking the Centenary of the Communist Party of China (1 July, 2021).” Qiushi, 6 September 2021. Available at http://en.qstheory.cn/2021-09/06/c_658164.htm.

Footnotes


[1]      This speech is now available on many websites and will soon be available in print form. The quotation here is made from the Chinese text at the CPC Central Committee’s journal, Qiushi (Seeking Truth): http://www.qstheory.cn/dukan/qs/2021-07/15/c_1127656422.htm. An initial English translation may be found at the English version of Qiushi, at http://en.qstheory.cn/2021-09/06/c_658164.htm.

[2]      This sentence summarises the conclusions of a number of works by Marx and Engels, including the opening lines of the “Manifesto of the Communist Party” (1848), Marx’s preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (1859), Engels’s The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State, and Engels’s prefaces to the German edition of the “Manifesto” in 1883 and the English edition in 1888.

[3]      Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, 1845. “The Holy Family.” In Marx Engels Collected Works, vol. 4, 5-211. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1975, p. 93.

[4]      These three types of community (共同体, a word coined to translate the German Gemeinschaft and Gemeinwesen) are well-known in Chinese Marxist scholarship. The core of this approach is found in Marx, Economic Manuscripts of 1857-58 (First Version of Capital, also known Grundrisse). In Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol. 28. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1986, p. 95, from which many of the quotations here come. See also pp. 415, 420. The phrases “illusory community,” “real community,” and “individuals attain their freedom in and through their association” come from Marx and Engels, 1846, The German Ideology. In Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol. 5. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1976, pp. 46, 78.

[5]      The final quotation comes from “The Manifesto of the Communist Party.” In Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol. 6, 477-519. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1976, p. 506.

[6]      The phrase “association of free people” is shorthand for the text quoted above from the “Manifesto.”

[7]      Engels, 1893, “Engels to Paul Lafargue, 27 June 1893.” In Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol. 50, 156-60. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1976, p. 157.

[8]      Marx, 1871. “Record of Marx’s Interview with ‘The World’ Correspondent.” In Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol. 22, 600-6. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1986, p. 602.

[9]      Marx, 1870. “Marx to Paul Lafargue, 19 April 1870.”  In Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol. 43, 489-93. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1988, p. 491.

[10]   Engels, 1894, “Engels to Paul Lafargue, 3 January 1894.” In Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol. 50, 252-54. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1976, p. 252.

[11]   Engels, 1882, “Engels to Karl Kautsky, 7 February 1882.”  In Marx Engels Collected Works, Vol. 46, 191-95. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1992, p. 192.

[12]   Lenin, 1902, “What Is to Be Done? Burning Questions of Our Movement.” In Lenin Collected Works, Vol. 5, 347-529. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1961, p. 370.

[13]   See Chai Shangjin, 2021, “The Innovative Contribution of the CPC’s One Hundred Years of International Engagement to the Marxist Theory of Inter-Party Relations.” Studies on the Theories of Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping, no. 4, 42-50+108.

[14]   Zhou Enlai. 1953. “Five Principles for Peaceful Coexistence (31 December, 1953).” In Selected Works of Zhou Enlai, Vol. 2, 128. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1989. See also, Mao Zedong, “The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence are a Long-term Goal (December 1954). In On Diplomacy, 136-50. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1998.

[15]   This sentence, which summarises a long tradition of CPC diplomacy, was first proposed by Jiang Zemin in 1998, “Speech at the Science City of Novosibirsk (24 November 1998).” In Selected Works of Jiang Zemin, vol. 2, 231-35. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 2012, p. 234.It also appears in the 2001 “Joint Statement Signed by the Chinese and Russian Heads of States, l6 July, 2001,” and has been included in each development to what is now, from 2019, “A Comprehensive Strategic Partnership for Collaboration in the New Era.” The text of the initial statement may be found at Foreign Ministry website of the PRC (https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjdt_665385/2649_665393/200107/t20010724_679028.html).

[16]   The text – in Chinese – may be found at the official site containing material from all of the CPC National Congresses: http://cpc.people.com.cn/GB/64162/64168/64565/65448/6415129.html.

[17]   The Chinese text may be found at http://cpc.people.com.cn/GB/64162/64168/64567/65446/6415682.html.

[18]   This quotation comes from Jiang Zemin’s speech on 12 September, 1997. Jiang Zemin, 1997, “Hold High the Great Banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory and Comprehensively Advance the Cause of Building Socialism with Chinese Characteristics into the 21st Century (12 September, 1997).” In Selected Works of Jiang Zemin, vol. 2, 1-50. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 2012, p. 42.

[19]   See Chai Shangjin, 2021, “The Innovative Contribution.”

[20]   Jiang Zemin, 2000, “Speech at the United Nations Millennium Summit (7 September 2000).” In Selected Works of Jiang Zemin, vol. 3, 1-7-12. Beijing Foreign Languages Press, 2012,p. 110

[21]   Xi Jinping, 2017, “Secure a Decisive Victory in Building a Moderately Prosperous Society in All Respects and Strive for the Great Success of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era: Report to the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, October 18, 2017.” In The Governance of China, vol. 3, 1-82. China: Foreign Languages Press, 2020.p. 63.

[22]   Xi Jinping, 2017, “Turn People’s Aspirations for a Better Life into Reality: Keynote Speech at the High-level Dialogue of the CPC and World Political Parties held on 1 December 2017.” In The Governance of China, vol. 3, 354-57. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, p. 356. Quotation from the Chinese original, which contains the complete text of the speech.

[23]   Xi Jinping, 2017, “Turn People’s Aspirations for a Better Life into Reality,” p. 357.

[24]   Xi Jinping, 2017, “Secure a Decisive Victory in Building a Moderately Prosperous Society in All Respects,” p. 62.

[25]   Xi Jinping, 2016, “Stay True to Our Original Aspiration and Continue Marching Forward (1 July 2016).” In The Governance of China, vol. 2, 32-48. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 2017, p. 42.

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